Remedial English Test Series 65

Remedial English Test Series 65

  Identify  the ONE mistake in each line and make corrections    (1 mark for each correct answer. Total score   ___ )

 

01 Arctic scientists have warned that the increasingly rapid melt of the ice cap risks triggering 19 “tipping points” in
02 the region that could have catastrophy consequences around the globe. The Arctic Resilience Report found that the
03 effects of Arctic warm could be felt as far away as the Indian Ocean, in a stark warning that changes in the region
04 could cause uncontrol  climate change at a global level.   “The warning signals are getting louder,” said Marcus
05 Carson of the Stockholm Environment Institute and one of the lead author of the report. “[These developments]
06 …also make the potential for trigger [tipping points] and feedback loops much larger.” Climate tipping points occur
07 when a natural system, such as the polar ice cap, undergo sudden or overwhelming change that has a profound
08 effect on surrounding ecosystems, often irreversible.  In the Arctic, the tipping points identify in the new report,
09 published on Friday, include: growth in vegetation on tundra, which replace  reflective snow and ice with darker
10 vegetation, thus absorb  more heat; higher releases of methane, a potent greenhouse gas, from the tundra as it
11 warms; shifts in snow distribution that warm the ocean, resulting in alter climate patterns as far away as Asia,
12 where the monsoon could be effect; and the collapse of some key Arctic fisheries, with knock-on effects on ocean
13 ecosystems around the globe. The research, compiled by 11 organisation including the Arctic Council and six
14 universities, comes at a critical time, not only because of the current Arctic temperature rise but in political terms.
15   “These are very serious problem, very serious changes are happening, but they are still poorly understood. We
16 need more research to understand them. For instant, when sea ice shrinks it leaves areas of dark ocean that
17 absorb more heat than the reflective ice, which in turn causes further shrink, and so on in a spiral. The Arctic ice
18 cap helps to cool sea and air temperatures, by reflect much of the sun’s radiation back into space, and acting as a
19 global cooler when winds and ocean currents swirl over and under it. It has long been know to play a key part of the
20 global climate system, but the difficulty and expense of close monitor  have meant that scientists have only in
21 recent years been able to make detail  assessments. The report, billed as the first comprehensive study of
22 ecosystems and societies in the region, found: “The potential effects of Arctic regime shift  [or tipping points] on the
23 rest of the world are substantial, yet poor understood. Human-driven climate change greatly increases the risk of
24 Arctic regime shift, so reducing global greenhouse gas emissions is crucial to reducing this risk.” (The Guardian, 25 Nov 16).

 

 

 

KEY TO Remedial English Test Series 65   Note the correct answers below

 

01 Arctic scientists have warned that the increasingly rapid melting of the ice cap risks triggering 19 “tipping points” in
02 the region that could have catastrophic consequences around the globe. The Arctic Resilience Report found that the
03 effects of Arctic warming could be felt as far away as the Indian Ocean, in a stark warning that changes in the region
04 could cause uncontrollable climate change at a global level.   “The warning signals are getting louder,” said Marcus
05 Carson of the Stockholm Environment Institute and one of the lead authors of the report. “[These developments]
06 …also make the potential for triggering [tipping points] and feedback loops much larger.” Climate tipping points occur
07 when a natural system, such as the polar ice cap, undergoes sudden or overwhelming change that has a profound
08 effect on surrounding ecosystems, often irreversible.  In the Arctic, the tipping points identified in the new report,
09 published on Friday, include: growth in vegetation on tundra, which replaces reflective snow and ice with darker
10 vegetation, thus absorbing more heat; higher releases of methane, a potent greenhouse gas, from the tundra as it
11 warms; shifts in snow distribution that warm the ocean, resulting in altered climate patterns as far away as Asia,
12 where the monsoon could be effected; and the collapse of some key Arctic fisheries, with knock-on effects on ocean
13 ecosystems around the globe. The research, compiled by 11 organisations including the Arctic Council and six
14 universities, comes at a critical time, not only because of the current Arctic temperature rises but in political terms.
15   “These are very serious problems, very serious changes are happening, but they are still poorly understood. We
16 need more research to understand them. For instance, when sea ice shrinks it leaves areas of dark ocean that
17 absorb more heat than the reflective ice, which in turn causes further shrinkage, and so on in a spiral. The Arctic ice
18 cap helps to cool sea and air temperatures, by reflecting much of the sun’s radiation back into space, and acting as a
19 global cooler when winds and ocean currents swirl over and under it. It has long been known to play a key part of the
20 global climate system, but the difficulty and expense of close monitoring have meant that scientists have only in
21 recent years been able to make detailed assessments. The report, billed as the first comprehensive study of
22 ecosystems and societies in the region, found: “The potential effects of Arctic regime shifts [or tipping points] on the
23 rest of the world are substantial, yet poorly understood. Human-driven climate change greatly increases the risk of
24 Arctic regime shifts, so reducing global greenhouse gas emissions is crucial to reducing this risk.” (The Guardian, 25 Nov 16).