TIPS ON MLA & APA STYLES OF RESEARCH : Dr. AJ Sebastian sdb

Tips on  MLA & APA  Research Methodology

Following proper research methodology is a sine qua non condition for your writing a scholarly research paper for a seminar or publication in a Journal. Hence I wish to give you some tips on the matter with some examples.

How to go about writing a research article or a Masters/MPhil dissertation or a PhD thesis???

Get hold of
MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers (7th edition) Pages: xxii & 292 pp.
Published: 2009 ISBN: 9781603290241 (paperback) ISBN: 9781603290258 (large print)

The MLA Handbook is widely adopted by universities, colleges, and secondary schools which gives clear direction to students in writing research papers.

Visit Web site www.mlahandbook.org

The following examples of both MLA & APA styles of work cited (references) may be of practical help to you:

(a) The MLA Style refers to the style of writing recommended by Modern Language Association. This style is used mostly in Literature & Humanities.

(b) The APA style refers to the method of writing research papers recommended by the American Psychological Association. The APA style is used in Sciences & the social sciences.

I am giving below  examples of citing works in a paper in both styles.

WORKS CITED

(i) MLA Style

Various eco-philososphies confront us with their diversified and some times radical approaches. Those who subscribe to the different approaches seek to solve the environmental crisis in their own ways, some being very subversive and revolutionary. These include Deep Ecology, Social Ecology, Earth First!, Greenpeace, Ecocriticism, Anthropocentrism, Ecofeminism, Ecosophy and Friends of the Earth. As critics opine, “The problem…is to find ways of keeping the human community from destroying the natural community, and with it the human community…. The conceptual and practical problem is to find the grounds upon which the two communities – the human, the natural – can coexist, cooperate, and flourish in the biosphere” (Rueckert 107).

Today world peace is threatened not only by warfare and conflicts, but also through lack of due respect for nature by its irresponsible and reckless exploitation and destruction. Joseph W. Meeker in his book The Comedy of Survival: Studies in Literary Ecology writes:
Human beings are the earth’s only literary creatures…. If the creation of literature is an important characteristic of the human species, it should be examined carefully and honestly to discover its influence upon human behaviour and the natural environment – to determine what role, if any it plays in the welfare and survival of mankind and what insight it offers into human relationships with other species and with the world around us. It is an activity which adapts us better to the world or one which estranges us from it? ( 3-4).
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Works Cited
Meeker, Joseph. The Comedy of Survival: Literary Ecology and the Play Ethic. Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 1997.
Rueckert, William. “Literature and Ecology: An Experiment in Ecocriticism.” The Ecocritism Reader: Landmarks in Literary Ecology. eds.     Glotfelty, Cheryll and Harold Fromm. Athens and London: University of Georgia Press, 1996.105-23.

(ii ) APA Style

Various eco-philososphies confront us with their diversified and some times radical approaches. Those who subscribe to the different approaches seek to solve the environmental crisis in their own ways, some being very subversive and revolutionary. These include Deep Ecology, Social Ecology, Earth First!, Greenpeace, Ecocriticism, Anthropocentrism, Ecofeminism, Ecosophy and Friends of the Earth. As William Rueckert opines, “The problem…is to find ways of keeping the human community from destroying the natural community, and with it the human community…. The conceptual and practical problem is to find the grounds upon which the two communities – the human, the natural – can coexist, cooperate, and flourish in the biosphere” (Rueckert 1996:107).

Today world peace is threatened not only by warfare and conflicts, but also through lack of due respect for nature by its irresponsible and reckless exploitation and destruction.

Human beings are the earth’s only literary creatures…. If the creation of literature is an important characteristic of the human species, it should be examined carefully and honestly to discover its influence upon human behaviour and the natural environment – to determine what role, if any it plays in the welfare and survival of mankind and what insight it offers into human relationships with other species and with the world around us. It is an activity which adapts us better to the world or one which estranges us from it? (Meeker 1997:3-4).
—————
Works Cited

Meeker, Joseph. (1997). The Comedy of Survival: Literary Ecology and the Play Ethic. Tucson: University of Arizona Press.
Rueckert, William. (1996). “Literature and Ecology: An Experiment in Ecocriticism.” The Ecocritism Reader: Landmarks in Literary Ecology. eds. Glotfelty, Cheryll and Harold Fromm. Athens  and London: University of Georgia Press. pp.105-23.

Dr. AJ Sebastian sdb,  Former professor & Head, Dept. of English, Nagaland Central University